Payments initiated when the customer is not present online, for example, renewals / recurring payments, trail to paid etc are classified as Off session paymentsThese transactions are classified as Merchant-Initiated-Transactions and are usually exempted from 3DS. If in case, issuing banks reject the exemption and forces to complete 3DS, then the payment will fail. 

In order to combat this, Chargebee will make sure such invoices get into a fall-back flow using dunning and the customers will be notified about the need to complete 3DS authentication. You can know more about the fallback flow from the article below. 

https://support.chargebee.com/a/solutions/articles/240875-what-is-the-fallback-mechanism-how-is-it-used-